Risk Factors For Osteoporotic Fracture


  • Personal history of fracture as an adult
  • History of fracture in first-degree relative
  • Caucasian/Asian race
  • Advanced age
  • Female sex
  • Dementia
  • Poor health/frailty

Potentially modifiable

  • Current cigarette smoking
  • Low body weight (<127 lbs)
  • Estrogen deficiency: early menopause (before age 45) or bilateral ovariectomy or prolonged premenopausal amenorrhea (>1 year)
  • Low calcium intake (lifelong)
  • Alcoholism
  • Impaired eyesight despite adequate correction
  • Recurrent falls
  • Inadequate physical activity
  • Poor health/frailty

The four items in boldface type are key factors in determining risk of hip fracture independent of BMD.


Adapted with permission from the National Osteoporosis Foundation's Physician's Guide to Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis, Washington, D.C.: Excerpta Medica, Inc.; 1998. This guide was developed in collaboration with: American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons; American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation; American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists; American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists; American College of Radiology; American College of Rheumatology; American Geriatric Society; American Society for Bone and Mineral Research; Endocrine Society.